Some countries, mainly in East Asia, have long recognised the importance of non-material heritage, but the West was slow to recognise as heritage-worthy both living heritage and intangible values associated with places or objects. Where intangible values of places, such as aesthetic value, were recognised as heritage-worthy these were seen as expert defined values rather than community-defined values. Social value was seen as a confirmation of the heritage value of the place rather than an independent aspect of heritage value. In the Western tradition the main criteria for identifying heritage sites have been architectural style and historical significance.
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE IN CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT PLANNING:
THE CASE OF ROBBEN ISLAND, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2004, Harriet Deacon